Government and politics
On January 13, 1992, the Parliament adopted a new constitution. The Constitution also restructured the legislative branch of the government by creating a unicameral parliamentary legislature. The Constitution was put into force on February 12, 1992 and amended in 1999 and 2001.
The Parliament of Mongolia is referred to as the State Great Khural, which is the highest organ of state power. The Parliament consists of 76 members appointed for a term of four years. The last parliamentary election was held on June 28, 2012 and the next parliamentary election is expected to be held in June 2016.
The Parliament confirms the appointment of the Prime Minister and Cabinet ministers. The Parliament has the power to draft legislation, enact and amend laws, approve the annual budget, approve foreign and domestic policies, declare states of emergency and war and ratify international treaties and agreements.
President of Mongolia
The President is the head of state, commander-in-chief of the armed forces and head of the National Security Council. The President is second in authority to the 76-member Parliament. Presidential candidates are nominated by political parties that have at least one seat in the Parliament. Presidents are elected by absolute majority vote to serve a four-year term and are limited to serving two terms. The President is empowered by the Constitution to submit a proposal for the nomination of the Prime Minister, which is then subject to approval by the Parliament, call for dissolution of the Cabinet, initiate legislation and veto all or parts of legislation passed by the Parliament. The President may also confirm appointments of judges, appoint ambassadors, grant pardons and enter into international treaties.
The Prime Minister is the head of the executive branch. The Prime Minister and the Deputy Prime Ministers are nominated by the ruling party and confirmed by the President. They are limited to serving a four-year term. The Prime Minister chooses the members of the Cabinet, subject to the Parliament’s approval. The Cabinet appoints and removes deputy ministers on the basis of the proposal of the Prime Minister and the relevant Minister.
The Cabinet is the highest executive body of Mongolia. The Cabinet is in place for a four-year term or a shorter term when it is dissolved upon either resignation of the Prime Minister, simultaneous resignation of half of the Cabinet or parliamentary vote for dissolution. The Cabinet and its ministries are accountable to the Parliament.
The main function of the Cabinet is to implement the laws of Mongolia, in accordance with its duties to direct economic, social and cultural development of Mongolia. The Cabinet is currently coinposed of 16 ministries, which carry out the Cabinet’s various programs and projects and formulate policies in their relevant areas.
The current Government
During Mongolia’s seventh parliamentary elections held on June 28, 2012, the Democratic Party won 31 parliamentary seats, the MPP won 25 pailiamentary seats and the other parties shared 16 parliamentary seats in the Parliament. The Democratic Party having won the most number of seats in the Parliament was entitled to form the current government. They formed a coalition government with the Justice Coalition, which consists of the New MPRP and the MNDP, and the Civil Will-Green Party, as the two minority parties. The new coalition government has been named the Reform Government.
Since the development of political pluralism and transition to democracy and market economy, Mongolia pursues peaceful, open, independent and multi-pillared foreign policy. Today the country maintains diplomatic relations with 163 countries.
In 2011, the contemporary diplomatic service celebrated its Centennial anniversary and Golden anniversary of membership of Mongolia in United Nations Organization.
Mongolia is successfully developing friendly relations and cooperation with our two neighbors, third neighbors and many western and eastern countries. Relations with UN organizations and other international and regional organizations deepened and Mongolia’s participation increased in multilateral regional activities, which led to strengthened reputation of our country in international arena.
Mongolia successfully chaired the Community of Democracies for the years 2011-2013 and organized the VII Ministerial Conference of the Community of Democracies in Ulaanbaatar on 27-29 April 2013.
Taking into account the ever changing external and internal environment as well as objectives and challenges ahead of us, State Great Hural of Mongolia passed renewed concept of foreign policy of Mongolia in February 2011.
As a part of foreign policy priorities of Mongolia, bilateral relationships with Russian Federation and People’s Republic of China has elevated to a new strategic partnership level while expanding close cooperation. At the same time, relations and cooperation with “third neighbors” has advanced. For instance, strategic partnership relations with Japan and comprehensive partnership commitment with United States, Germany, Republic of Korea, India and Turkey have been strengthened respectively. Meanwhile, more substantial progresses have been achieved in relationships and cooperation with European Union and its member countries which is considered as one of our foreign policy priorities.
Mongolia continues to actively advance diplomacy to strengthen its position in the Asian region, to intensify bilateral relationships with other regional countries, to engage to a dialogue on political, security and economic cooperation of the region and to participate in the regional integration processes. As expanding its traditional relations with Asian partnership states, Mongolia has strengthened friendly relations and cooperation with ASEAN member countries and thus increased frequency of high-level visits. Mongolia’s accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia in 2005 shows a clear and convincing evidence of its commitment to expand its relationship with ACEAN. Within the regional cooperation frameworks, Mongolia engages, through its certain assigned status, in important regional integration events and mechanisms, including the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC), the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the Asian Cooperation Dialogue (ACD), the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM), the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA) and the Forum for East Asia-Latin America Cooperation (FEALAC) and the Bali Democracy Forum (BDF).
Mongolia actively collaborates with the United Nations, its specialized agencies and other international financial, trade and economic institutions. Such cooperation has served as significant engine and impetus for the social and economic development of the country.
Mongolia has celebrated the 50th anniversary of its membership to the United Nations this year. The admission to the United Nations provides a wide range of opportunities to maintain its independence and national security, to actively participate and contribute in the United Nations’ activities together with other countries and to receive grants and assistance. In recent years, the cooperation between Mongolia and the United Nations has successfully expanded in certain key areas aimed at increasing its contribution to the United Nations’ peacekeeping, ensuring social and economic development and improving the state of landlocked developing countries among others. Since its admission to the United Nations, Mongolia has initiated and ensured adoption of over 80 resolutions, including 11 dated to 2007-2012.
Since 2002, Mongolia has deployed more than 5,600 peacekeepers to the United Nations peacekeeping in Iraq, Afghanistan, Kosovo, Sierra Leone, Chad, Sudan, West Sahara, Congo, Ethiopia and Georgia. At present, several military observers are working in Congo, West Sahara and South Sudan. Additionally, a military field hospital with about 70 Mongolian staffs is operating within the joint United Nations-African Union peacekeeping mission in Sudan. Besides, Mongolian 370 peacekeepers are participating the NATO-led international security assistance force.
Mongolia continues its commitment to engage international community efforts aimed to overcome challenges and problems caused by climate change. For instance, the President of Mongolia attended the UN Climate Change Conference (COP15) in December 2009 so that Mongolia has acceded to the Copenhagen Accord.
In 2010, Mongolia became a member of the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) and a participating state in the OSCE in 2012.
The Government of Mongolia recognizes importance of establishing free trade agreement with its main trading partners, being part of regional trade agreements and participating multilateral trade negotiations having conducted within the framework of WTO by safeguarding of its national interests in order to create favorable condition for promoting foreign trade and to increase the access of local products to the international markets. Mongolia’s trade policy objectives are aimed at developing an outward-oriented trade regime following the principles of the World Trade Organization (the “WTO”), with the goal of increasing overseas market access for Mongolia’s products through greater integration into the world economy. Mongolia continues to encourage foreign direct investment into the country to expand output and employment and encourage the transfer of skills and knowledge.
Mongolia participates as a member of several international financial organizations, such as International Finance Corporation, International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
Mongolia is currently seeking to become a member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (“APEC”), which promotes open trade and practical economic cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region, which would allow Mongolia to have open trade with more nations.